Archive for March, 2009

RAHUL DRAVID

Posted: March 24, 2009 by Shishir Gupta in Cricket
Tags: , ,

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Rahul Sharad Dravid (born 11 January 1973) is one of the most experienced members of the Indian national cricket team, of which he has been a regular member since 1996. He was appointed as the captain of the Indian cricket team in October 2005 and resigned from the post in September 2007. Dravid was honored as the Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 2000.
Known as The Wall due to his ability to bat for long durations of time, Dravid holds multiple world cricketing records. He is the third Indian batsman, after Sunil Gavaskar and Sachin Tendulkar, to have scored more than 10,000 runs in test cricket. On 14 February 2007, he became the sixth player in the history of world cricket and the third Indian, after Sachin Tendulkar and Sourav Ganguly, to score 10,000 runs in ODI cricket. With more than 182 catches, Dravid currently holds the world record of the highest number of catches in Test cricket. Dravid has also been involved in more than 75 century partnerships with 18 different partners — a world record.

PERSONAL INFORMATION

dravid2FULL NAME : Rahul Sharad Dravid
NICKNAME : The Wall, Jammy
BORN : 11 January 1973 (1973-01-11) (age 36) Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
BATTING STYLE : Right-handed
BOWLING STYLE : Right arm off spin  
ROLE :  Batsman, Wicketkeeper

INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION

Test Debut : (cap 206), 20 June 1996: v England
Last Test : 
3 April 2009 v New Zealand
ODI Debut :
(cap 95)  3 April 1996 v Sri Lanka
Last ODI :
14 October 2007 v Australia

DOMESTIC TEAM INFORMATION

1990–present : Karnataka
2000 :
Kent
2003 :
Scotland
2008–present :
Royal Challengers Bangalore
2009 : Canterbury, New Zealand

CAREER STATISTICS

                          Tests     ODI
Matches
                   134       333 
Runs scored       10,283    10,585 
Batting average    52.53    39.49 
100s/50s            26/57   12/81 
Top score             270      153 
 
Balls bowled        120    186 
Wickets                  1         4 
Bowling average  39.00   42.50 
5 wkts in inns        0          0 
10 wkts in mat       0         n/a 
Best bowling       1/18      2/43 
Ctchs/stmps      184/–     193/14 

PERSONAL LIFE
Dravid was born in Indore, Madhya Pradesh into a Maharashtrian Deshastha family living in Karnataka. His paternal ancestors were Iyers from Thanjavur. He grew up in Bangalore, Karnataka. He speaks Marathi and Kannada. He has a younger brother, Vijay. Both the brothers grew up in a serious and simple middle class atmosphere. Dravid’s father worked for Kissan Products Ltd, a company known for jams and preserves and thus he earned the nickname Jammy from his teammates at St. Joseph’s Boys’ High School, Bangalore. His mother, Pushpa, was a professor of Architecture at Bangalore University. Rahul Dravid has a degree in commerce from St Joseph’s College of Commerce Bangalore, Karnataka.
On 4 May 2003, Rahul married Dr. Vijeta Pendharkar, a surgeon from Nagpur and on 11 October 2005, their son, Samit, was born.

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EARLY YEARS
Dravid started playing cricket at the age of 12, and represented the state at the under-15, under-17 and under-19 level. Rahul’s talents were first spotted by former cricketer Keki Tarapore who was coaching at a summer coaching camp at the Chinnaswamy Stadium. He went on to score a century on debut for his school team. Along with the batting, he was keeping wickets. However, he later stopped keeping wickets on advice from former Test players Gundappa Vishwanath, Roger Binny, Brijesh Patel and Tarapore.
He was selected to make his Ranji Trophy debut in February 1991 against Maharashtra in Pune (while still attending college at St. Joseph’s College of Commerce in Bangalore), alongside future Indian teammates Anil Kumble and Javagal Srinath, scoring 82 in a drawn match after batting in the No. 7 position. His first full season was in 1991-92, when he scored two centuries to finish with 380 runs at an average of 63.3, and was selected for South Zone in the Duleep Trophy.

INTERNATIONAL CAREER
Dravid had a disappointing start to his career making his debut in one-dayers against Sri Lankan cricket team in the Singer Cup in Singapore immediately after World Cup in March 1996, replacing Vinod Kambli.The was Run-out for a duck and subsequently, he was dropped from the team, until he was picked again for the tour of England.
He then made his debut in the Second Test against England along with Sourav Ganguly,when Sanjay Manjrekar got injured after the first Test match on that tour.Rahul scored 95 and held his position on Manjrekar’s return for the Third Test, scoring 84. After moderate performance in home series against Australia and South Africa, Dravid broke through on the 1996-97 tour of South Africa. He batted at No. 3 in the third Test in Johannesburg, scoring his maiden century with 148 and 81, the top score in each innings to claim his first man of the match award. He made his first half-century against Pakistan in the Sahara Cup in 1996, scoring 90 in his 10th ODI.
In the 18 months ending in mid-1998, he played in an away series against the West Indies, home and away series against Sri Lanka and a home series against Australia, he scored consistently, with 964 runs at an average of 56.7. He scored eleven half-centuries but was unable to convert them to triple figures. He scored his second century in late 1998 against Zimbabwe in a one-off Test match, top-scoring in both innings with 148 and 44, but was unable to prevent an Indian defeat. He became the third Indian batsman after Vijay Hazare and Sunil Gavaskar to score centuries in both innings of a match during the 1999 New Year’s Test match against New Zealand with 190 and 103* to force a draw. He had a moderate season in the subcontinent in early 1999, scoring 269 runs at an average of 38.42 with one century before scoring 239 at an average of 39.8 including a century against New Zealand in late 1999. This was followed by a poor away series against Australia and another poor home series against South Africa, accumulating just 187 runs at an average of 18.7. He then scored 200*, his first double century, against Zimbabwe in Delhi, which along with 70* in the second innings helped India to victory. It was the first time he had passed 50 in 12 months and he followed this with a 162 in the following Test, giving him 432 runs in the two match series at an average of 432.
In the second test of a three match test series against Australia at Kolkata in 2001, Dravid joined hands with VVS Laxman to produce one of the greatest comeback victories in the history of the game. Following on, the pair put on 376 runs for the fifth wicket in the second innings of the match. Dravid scored 180 while Laxman made 281. Though Dravid ended up second-best, it remains one of his greatest performances till date. Later that year in Port Elizabeth against South Africa, he made a crucial match-saving 87 runs in the second innings to deny South Africa the win.

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2002 was the year, when Dravid started to emerge out of Tendulkar’s shadow and established himself as India’s premier Test batsman. In the month of April, at Georgetown, West Indies in first test match of the series, he scored an unbeaten 144 in the first innings after being hit by a Mervyn Dillon delivery. Later that year, he raked up four consecutive centuries against England(3) and West Indies(1). In August 2002, against England at Headingley Stadium, Leeds in the third test match of the series, he scored a 148 in the first innings on a seamer-friendly to set up a famous Indian win. He won the man of the match award for this performance. Dravid’s astonishing aggregate of 602 runs in the four match test series against England also fetched him the man of the series award.
In 2003-2004 season, Dravid scored three double centuries, one each against New Zealand, Australia and Pakistan. Against Australia at Adelaide in second match of the four match series, the batting pair of Dravid and VVS Laxman proved to be Australia’s nemesis again. In the first innings, India were looking down the barrel at 4 wickets down for 85 runs in reply to Australia’s massive 556 when the duo joined hands. By the time their partnership was broken, the pair had put on 303 runs. Laxman was dismissed for 148 while Dravid went on make 233. At that time, this was the highest individual score by an Indian batsman overseas. By the time Dravid was done, India was only 33 short of Australia’s first innings score. Dravid followed this with an unbeaten 72 under immense pressure in the second innings to set up a famous victory. Dravid scored 619 runs in that four-match series against Australia at an average of 103.16 and won the man of the series award. During the later part of the season, Dravid, in Ganguly’s absence, led India to its first test victory over Pakistan in Pakistan in the first test match at Multan. In the third and the final match of the series At Rawalpindi, Dravid stroked a masterly 270 to take India to a historic test series win over Pakistan.

DRAVID IN WORLD CUPS
Dravid was top run scorer in the 7th World Cup(1999), scoring 461 runs. He is the only Indian to score two back to back 100’s in World Cup’s.He scored 110 vs Kenya and followed it with a masterly 145 vs Srilanka in Taunton in a match where he kept wickets later.He was vice captain during 2003 World cup where India reached the final, serving his team in the dual capacity of batsman and wicket keeper to accommodate additional batsman, a move that paid huge dividends for India. Dravid was the captain during 2007 cricket world cup in West Indies, where Indian cricket team had a dismal campaign. Dravid had scores of 14 in Bangladesh match, 7* in Bermuda match and 60 in Sri Lanka match.

The Match Against Kenya in WC 99. The scored a Pantnership of 331 Runs Against NZ in same same year later.

The Match Against Kenya in WC 99. The scored a Pantnership of 331 Runs Against NZ in same same year later.

STYLE
With a strong technique, he has been the backbone for the Indian cricket team. Beginning with the reputation of being a defensive batsman who should be confined to Test cricket, he was dropped from ODIs as he was slow in making runs. However, in a period of his career he began consistently scoring runs in ODIs as well, earning him the award of ICC player of the year. His nickname of ‘The Wall’ in Reebok advertisements has now become a tribute to his consistency. Dravid has scored 26 centuries in Test cricket at an average of 55.11, including 5 double centuries. In one-dayers though he has an average of 39.49, and a strike rate of 71.22. He is one of the few Indians who average more at away matches than at home, averaging over 10 more runs a match abroad than on Indian pitches. As of 9 August, 2006, Dravid’s average in overseas Tests stood at 65.28 as against his overall Test average of 55.41, and his average for away ODI stands at 42.03 as against overall ODI average of 39.49. In matches that India has won, Dravid averages 78.72 in Tests and 53.40 in ODIs.
Dravid’s sole Test wicket was that of Ridley Jacobs in the fourth Test against the West Indies during the 2001-2002 series. While he has no pretensions to being a bowler, Dravid often kept wicket for India in ODIs. He has since delegated the wicket-keeping gloves, first to Parthiv Patel and more recently to Mahendra Singh Dhoni. Dravid is now purely a batsman, one who has averaged 63.51 in matches played since 1 January, 2000.
Dravid was involved in two of the largest partnerships in ODIs: a 318-run partnership with Sourav Ganguly, the first pair to combine for a 300-run partnership, and then a 331-run partnership with Sachin Tendulkar, which is the present world record. He also holds the record for the greatest number of innings since debut before being dismissed for a duck. His highest scores in ODIs and Tests are 153 and 270 respectively. Uniquely, each of his five double centuries in Tests was a higher score than his previous double century (200*, 217, 222, 233, 270).

dravid101165
Also, Dravid is the current world record holder for the highest percentage(%) contribution of runs scored in matches won under a single captain, where the captain has won more than 20 Tests. In the 21 Test matches India won under Sourav Ganguly’s leadership, Dravid played his part in every single one of those wins, scoring at a record average of 102.84 and piling up an astonishing 2571 runs, with nine hundreds – three of them double-centuries – and ten fifties in 32 innings. He contributed nearly 23% of the total runs scored by India those 21 matches, which is almost one run out of every four runs the team scored.
He was named one of the Wisden cricketers of the year 2000. Though primarily a defensive batsman,Dravid has scored 50 not out in 22 balls(Strike Rate-227.27)vs NewZealand in Hydrabad on 15 Nov,2003,second fastest 50 among Indians.Only Ajit Agarkar 67 of 21 balls is faster than Dravid.
In 2004, Dravid was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India. On 7 September, 2004, he was awarded the inaugural Player of the year award and the Test player of the year by the International Cricket Council, ICC. Dravid’s batting average of 95.46 in the past year has made him the only Indian to be in the Test team of the year. On 18 March, 2006, Dravid played his 100th Test against England in Mumbai.
In 2005, a biography of Rahul Dravid written by Devendra Prabhudesai was published, ‘The Nice Guy Who Finished First’. In the 2005 ICC Awards he was the only Indian to be named to the World one-day XI. In 2006, it was announced that he would remain captain of the Indian team up to the 2007 World Cup in the West Indies. After the England Series however, he stepped down as captain of India due to personal reasons. Mahendra Singh Dhoni took over as ODI captain. Anil Kumble replaced him in test matches. In 2007, he was dropped from the Indian ODI Squad following poor series against Australia. Dravid went back to play for Karnataka in the Ranji Trophy, scoring 218 against Mumbai.
In 2008, he made 93 in the first innings of the Perth test, the highest score of the match, to help India win and make the series 1-2. However, he was ignored by selectors for the subsequent one-day tri-series. After a barren run in Test matches in 2008, Dravid came under increasing media pressure to retire or be dropped. In the Second Test against England in Mohali, he scored 136, putting on a triple-century stand with Gautam Gambhir.
After reaching 10,000 test runs milestone, he was quoted saying, “It’s a proud moment for sure. For me, growing up, I dreamt of playing for India. When I look back, I probably exceeded my expectations with what I have done over the last 10 to 12 years. I never had an ambition to do it because I never believed – it is just a reflection of my longevity in the game.”

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PERSONAL RECORDS
Tests

Dravid is the 3rd Indian (6th in World) to score more than 10,000 test runs.
Has been involved in the most century partnerships in Test history – 76 (5 April 2009).
Scored nearly 23% of the total runs put up by India (with a batting average of 102.84) in the 21 Test matches won under Ganguly’s captaincy. This is the highest percentage contribution by any batsman in Test cricket history in matches won under a single captain where the captain has won more than 20 Tests.
2nd longest streak of consecutive Tests since debut (93 + 1 in ICC XI) missed 95th test at Ahmedabad due to fever, behind Adam Gilchrist (96).
Only player to score a century against every Test playing nation away from home.
Involved in highest partnership made away from home for any wicket for India with vice captain Virender Sehwag of 410 runs vs Pakistan at Lahore in 2006 (also, the highest partnership between a captain and the vice captain). Only Pankaj Roy and Vinoo Mankad have scored more runs in a partnership for India, 413 vs New Zealand in Chennai (6-11 Jan 1956)
Dravid is one among the only three batsmen to hit Test centuries in four consecutive innings. The other two are Jack Fingleton and Alan Melville. Dravid achieved this by hitting scores of 115, 148, 217 and 100* in three successive matches against England and one against the West Indies. Only Everton Weekes, with centuries in five consecutive innings, has achieved a longer sequence of consecutive Test hundreds.
With scores of 50 or more in 7 consecutive Tests Dravid is behind only to Tendulkar(8) among the Indian batsmen. IVA Richards holds the record for most with 11.
He is currently 2nd among batsmen who have scored most away runs in Tests (6430 as of April 2009). Only Sachin Tendulkar (7165) has scored more away Test runs.
He has played 150 innings of 94 tests at number 3. He has scored more than 8000 runs at this position. Both feats are world records.
2nd Indian batsman to score twin hundreds in a Test twice, after Sunil Gavaskar. Gavaskar and Ponting are the only batsmen to score twin hundreds in a Test thrice.
One of only two Indians to score 5 double hundreds.(each bigger than the previous 200* vs Zimbabwe, 217 vs England, 222 vs New Zealand, 233 vs Australia, 270 vs Pakistan).
Dravid holds the record for the most number of catches by a non-wicketkeeper (184) in the world.
Partnering with Tendulkar, has scored more runs than any other pair, excluding opening pairs. They are the 3rd best in terms of total number of partnership runs scored by a pair in test cricket.

sachin-dravid

One Dayers
Partnership Records
The only batsman to have been involved in two ODI partnerships exceeding 300 runs.
First batsman to be involved in a 300 run partnership in a Cricket World Cup along with Sourav Ganguly in the 1999 World Cup match against Sri Lanka at Taunton.
Involved in all three highest 4th wicket partnerships against South Africa, two with Yuvraj Singh.
Involved in the highest partnership in the history of ODI cricket with a 331 run partnership along with Sachin Tendulkar vs New Zealand at Hyderabad in 1999-2000.
World Cup Records
He was the leading run scorer in the 1999 World Cup with 461 runs.
Has the 2nd highest score (145) by a wicketkeeper in a World Cup behind AC Gilchrist(149).
He was only the second wicketkeeper-batsman after Zimbabwean Dave Houghton to score an ODI hundred in the World Cup.
He was the second batsman after Mark Waugh to score back-to-back hundreds in the World Cup
Captaincy Records
He is tied with Sachin Tendulkar in fourth place for having captained India in the most victorious matches
Other Records
Has the record of not being dismissed on duck for 120 consecutive ODI matches
3rd Highest number of fifties, after Sachin Tendulkar (93) and Inzamam Ul Haq (83)
Rahul Dravid is the only other Indian to be the top scorer (first one is Sachin Tendulkar – twice – 1996, 2003) in a World Cup. He amassed 461 runs in the 1999 World Cup, the first World Cup he played.

dravid-great-shot

CAPTAINCY
Achievements
Rahul Dravid led India to a historic Test series win, against the West Indies in their home soil in 2006. Since 1971, India had never won a Test series in the West Indies. This is also their first prominent series win outside the Indian subcontinent (barring the win against Zimbabwe in 2005) since 1986.
Under Dravid’s captaincy the Indian team tied the previous record of most consecutive One-Day International wins for an Indian team thus equalling the record run that the Indian team had achieved under Sourav Ganguly in the 2003 World Cup in South Africa (8). This was later bested by Mahendra Singh Dhoni who led Indian team to 9 consecutive victories in 2008-2009.
During his captaincy the Indian team broke the 14 match West Indies record for most consecutive won matches in One-Day Internationals while chasing a total. For this 17 match run, Dravid was the captain for 15 matches and Sourav Ganguly was the captain for the other two. This streak was broken on 20 May 2006, when India lost to the West Indies by one run, at Sabina Park, Jamaica.
Rahul Dravid is the first captain to lead India to a Test match victory against South Africa on South African soil
He became only the third captain from India to win a Test series in England. This feat was achieved after 21 years. The other two captains being Kapil Dev (1986) and Ajit Wadekar (1971).
Criticism
One of Dravid’s most debated decisions was taken in March 2004, when he was standing in as captain for an injured Sourav Ganguly. The Indian first innings was declared at a point when Sachin Tendulkar was at 194 with 16 overs remaining on Day 2.
Rahul Dravid has had a mixed record when leading India in Tests. India lost the Karachi Test in 2006, giving Pakistan the series 1-0. In March 2006, India lost the Mumbai Test, giving England its first Test victory in India since 1985, enabling Flintoff’s men to draw the series 1-1. While the loss in Karachi could be put down to several Indian batsmen playing badly, the defeat in Mumbai was arguably the result of Dravid’s decision to bowl first on a flat dry pitch which later deteriorated and ended with an Indian collapse in the run chase.
He was criticised by Vijay Mallya for not picking the team with right balance after the Bangalore Royal Challengers finished seventh out of the eight teams that played in the 2008 Indian Premier League.
After India failed to qualify for the Finals of the DLF Cup, Indian skipper Rahul Dravid was criticised by former all-rounder Ravi Shastri who said that he was not assertive enough and let Greg Chappell make too many decisions. When asked for a response, Dravid said that Shastri, while a ‘fair critic’, was ‘not privy’ to the internal decision-making process of the team.

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AWARDS

He was awarded the Padma Shri in 2004 one of India’s highest awards.
Ceat Cricketer of the 1999 World Cup.
Wisden Cricketer of the Year 2000.
Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy Winner (Awarded for ICC Player of the Year).
ICC Test Player of The Year 2004
3 Man of the Series Awards in Test Cricket. 
9 Man of the Series Award in ODI Cricket.
14 Man of the Match Awards in ODI Cricket.

CONTROVERSIES
Ball-Tampering Incident

In January 2004 Dravid was found guilty of ball tampering during an ODI with Zimbabwe. Match referee Clive Lloyd adjudged the application of an energy sweet to the ball as a deliberate offence although Dravid himself denied this was his intent. Lloyd emphasised that television footage conclusively showed the star Indian batsman intentionally applying a lozenge to the ball during the Zimbabwean innings on Tuesday night at the Gabba, which was in breach of clause 2.10 of the ICC’s Code of Conduct.
Indian coach John Wright came out in defence of Dravid, stating that “It was an innocent mistake”. Dravid did not comment on the incident due to ICC regulations, but former Indian captain Sourav Ganguly also stated that Dravid’s act was “just an accident”. Ricky Ponting had his own take on the incident, asserting “I don’t think you’ll see us doing anything like that”.

BIOGRAPHIES
Rahul Dravid has 2 biographies written on his career:

  • Rahul Dravid – A Biography written by Vedam Jaishankar
  • The Nice Guy Who Finished First – written by Devendra Prabhudesai.

ENDORSEMENTS

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  • Reebok: 1996 – present
  • Pepsi: 1997 present
  • Kissan: Unknown
  • Castrol: 2001 – present
  • Hutch: 2003
  • Karnataka Tourism: 2004
  • Max Life: 2005 – present
  • Bank of Baroda: 2005 – present
  • Citizen: 2006 – present
  • Skyline Construction: 2006 – present
  • Sansui: 2007 – present
  • Gillette: 2007 – now

SOCIAL COMMITMENTS

  • Children’s Movement for Civic Awareness (CMCA)
  • UNICEF Supporter and AIDS Awareness Campaign

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REFRENCES
1. wikipedia.com
2. cricinfo.com

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MTV ROADIES

Posted: March 24, 2009 by Shishir Gupta in MTV Roadies, Television Shows
Tags: , ,

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MTV Roadies is a popular reality television show which airs on MTV India. The show was created by Raghu Ram and Rajiv Laxman and is hosted by Rannvijay. When asked about the show, Raghu said, “Roadies has travel, adventure, drama, touch of voyeurism…”

Also known as:   MTV Roadies
Genre:  Reality show
Presented by:  Cyrus Sahukar Season 1
                        Rannvijay Singh Season 2 onwards
Country of origin:   India
Language(s):  Hindi
No. of seasons:  6
Executive producer(s):  Raghu Ram
Location(s):  India Season 1 to 4
                     India,Thailand,Malaysia Season 5
                     India, Australia – Season 6
Original channel:  MTV India
First shown: in  2003
Original Run: 2003 – present

SELECTION PROCEDURE
Auditions are held in various major cities in India. People who turn up for the audition are made to undergo a group discussion, following which, selected candidates are chosen for personal interview conducted by Raghu Ram and Nikhil Chinnappa (Rajiv Laxman was there in place of Nikhil in the sixth Season). The interview round is deliberately acrimonious to test the participant’s attitude, tolerance and patience levels. In the first two seasons, 7 Roadies were selected. Since then, this number has been increased to 13. There is no limit as to how many times a person can audition. For Season Six, 20 roadies were selected from the Interviews.

FORMAT
The selected Roadies are provided with Hero Honda Karizma bikes to travel on a pre-decided route. Each episode features a vote-out, at the end in which the Roadies eliminate one of their fellow Roadies by an anonymous vote, thereby decreasing the number of Roadies carrying on with the journey.
Each episode consists of number of tasks or challenges which they have to perform. These tasks can be either “Money tasks” or “Immunity tasks”. In the “Money tasks”, the Roadies add cash to their account on successful completion of these tasks while in “Immunity tasks”, the team which wins gets Immunity. The team which attains Immunity becomes safe from vote-out i.e its members cannot be voted-out in that particular episode. The above mentioned tasks are either team-based (i.e. performed between two or more teams) or individual-based (i.e. performed one-on-one). At the end of scheduled journey, the last Roadie who survives till the end is declared the winner and walks away with the total cash accumulated by performing the money tasks. The fifth season was the first time when an Advantage task was introduced. The winner(s) of an Advantage task get(s) some advantage in the vote out, which may include multiple votes or being the only one(s) to vote in the vote-out.
The Indian version of the show is based on the original MTV reality show Road Rules which started in the year 1995.

WINNERS to DATE

  • Season 1 – Rannvijay Singh from Jalandhar
  • Season 2 – Ayushmann Khuranna from Chandigarh
  • Season 3 – Parul Shahi from Delhi
  • Season 4 – Anthony Yeh from Kolkata
  • Season 5 – Ashutosh Kaushik from Saharanpur
  • Season 6 – Nauman Seth from Bangalore

 

REFRENCES

1. wikipedia.com


Parent & child process have different Code, Data & Test segments. But two threads of the same process share the Code & Data segments and have separate stacks.

A thread is a stream of instructions which can be scheduled independently(i.e it has its own program counter and stack).But a thread shares its resources like program code,directories and global data with the calling process.A process on the other hand has its own copy of both resources and scheduling information.A process can have many threads,basically threads are called light weight processes.

Differences Between Threads and Processes

  • Threads share the address space of the process that created it; processes have their own address.
  • Threads have direct access to the data segment of its process; processes have their own copy of the data segment of the parent process.
  • Threads can directly communicate with other threads of its process; processes must use inter-process communication to communicate with sibling processes.
  • Threads have almost no overhead; processes have considerable overhead.
  • New threads are easily created; new processes require duplication of the parent process.
  • Threads can exercise considerable control over threads of the same process; processes can only exercise control over child processes.
  • Changes to the main thread (cancellation, priority change, etc.) may affect the behavior of the other threads of the process, changes to the parent process does not affect child processes.

Similarities Between Threads and Processes

  • Both have an id, set of registers, state, priority, and scheduling policy.
  • Both have attributes that describe the entity to the OS.
  • Both have an information block.
  • Both share resources with the parent process.
  • Both function as independent entities from the parent process.
  • The creator can exercise some control over the thread or process.
  • Both can change their attributes.
  • Both can create new resources.
  • Neither can access the resources of another process.

Aussie umpire tells of terror attack
correspondents in Lahore, Pakistan
Herald Sun, March 03, 2009

“It was terrible. The van driver died in front of us. I am lost for words,” stunned Australian cricket umpire Steve Davis said after gunmen turned an upmarket Pakistani square into a battleground.

Sri Lanka’s cricket side were on the team bus, all thoughts trained on the third day of their second Test against Pakistan in Lahore, when an explosion shattered the morning calm.

Masked attackers, creeping through trees, then opened fire in a brazen gun and grenade attack that left eight people dead and wounded six members of the squad.

For 15 minutes, the expensive business and commercial district of Liberty Square, with its designer boutiques and smart offices, was raked by bullets as Pakistani security forces and the attackers exchanged fire.

“There was a blast first, then we heard firing. A rocket launcher was also fired at the bus which narrowly missed,” a Sri Lankan cricketer told AFP on condition of anonymity.

Television umpire Nadeem Ghori and Davis were travelling with other Test umpires just behind the Sri Lankan team when the bullets suddenly rang out.

“Our bus driver Mohammad Zafar was hit in the stomach and died on the spot,” Ghori said.

“The firing continued for 15 minutes. It was shocking.”

Television footage showed a number of gunmen, wearing backpacks and some in sports trainers, creeping nimbly behind bushes, crouching to aim their weapons and then running onto the next target.

Blood stained the front seats of a vehicle used by Pakistan’s elite force, the van raked with gunfire with its wheels shot up, its plastic steering wheel cover damaged and radio system disabled by bullets, said an AFP reporter.

Crystals of broken glass littered the road.

Bullet holes tore through the windscreen of another vehicle and a white car was shown smashed headlong into the roundabout, with nervous security officers guarding the site.

An AFP correspondent found and handed over empty rifle magazines dropped by the gunmen in a side street after they fled.

Australian freelance cameraman Tony Bennett was at the Gaddafi stadium in Lahore when “we heard a bomb go off, rapid rounds of machine gun fire outside the ground, small arms fire.”

“Next thing we knew, the Sri Lankan team bus rolls up being sprayed by bullets,” he said.

“Players (were) getting carried into the dressing room.”

Gavin Scovell, director for Australia’s Ten Sports television channel, also witnessed the shooting.

“I could see a few wounds but they weren’t panicking, they were very calm,” he said of the players.

“With all respect to them, it must have been a terrifying experience for them.”

A security guard in the Big City Plaza said he heard a huge explosion before the shooting began.

“Soon after the blast, there was (the) noise of continuous firing. I thought perhaps some bomb had exploded in the Gaddafi Stadium,” he said.

“I was frightened. I had only a gun. After some time I saw a damaged police vehicle, an overturned traffic police motorcycle and a traffic warden dead on the road. Then my superiors ordered me to come inside,” he added.

Sri Lankan authorities said six players were wounded and recalled the team home after what was the first bloody attack on a visiting cricket team in this cricket-obsessed country.

Security officials said the gunmen managed to escape after the shooting on four main roads leading from the square.


Attack bore LeT signs: Experts

The attack on Lankan cricketers in Lahore bear the signs of a Lashkar-e-Tayiba-style attack, terror experts say.  Experts say it is typical of the LeT to carry out such attacks after security agencies cracked down on its leaders.  The attack, they say, goes on to prove that despite claims of dismantling its top leadership, the outfit is capable of striking at will.

Flashback 2002: source livemint

In 2002, a bomb exploded in Karachi while the New Zealand cricket team were touring, killing 13 people including 11 French navy experts. The tourists, based at the Pearl Continental Hotel, were preparing to depart for the National Stadium for the start of a test match when a car exploded outside the nearby Karachi Sheraton. New Zealand called off the tour within hours of the attack.

Acting Sri Lankan foreign minister Hussein Bhaila “also confirmed that two players, Tharanga Paranavitana and Thilan Thushara were hospitalised and the Sri Lankan High Commissioner is rushing to Lahore to take stock of the situation.Divulging the details, he said that Thilan Samaraweera, who was in great form, was hit in the thigh, while a bullet grazed the chest of another player that was treated in the hospital. Also, six others suffered from cut injuries and were treated in the Gaddafi Stadium itself.”   (www.zeenews.com)

Sri Lankan cricket team attacked in Pakistan
By RIZWAN ALI – Associated Press Writer
LAHORE, Pakistan

A dozen masked gunmen armed with rifles and rocket launchers attacked the Sri Lankan cricket team as it traveled to a match in Pakistan on Tuesday, wounding several players and killing five police officers, officials said.

The assailants ambushed the team’s convoy at a traffic circle close to the main sports stadium in the eastern city of Lahore ahead of a match against Pakistan’s national team, triggering a 15-minute gunbattle with police guarding the vehicles.

None of the attackers were killed or captured at the scene, said city police chief Haji Habibur Rehman said. Authorities did not speculate on the identities of the attackers or their motives.

TV footage showed gunmen with backpacks – apparently the attackers – firing at the convoy as they retreated from the scene, with several damaged vehicles and a lone, unexploded grenade lying on the ground.

A Sri Lankan foreign ministry official said two players – Thilan Samaraweera and Tharanga Paranavitana – were hospitalized. He said three more players were slightly injured and that the head coach, Australian Trevor Bayliss, also sustained minor injuries. The official spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak to the media.

Squad member Kumar Sangakkara told Sri Lankan radio station Yes-FM that “all the players are completely out of danger.”

“Luckily there’s nothing serious and everyone is fine,” he said.

Police chief Haji Habibur Rehman said five policemen died in the attack by 12 masked gunmen.

Authorities cancelled the test match and the Lahore governor said the team was flying home.

The attack will surely mean the end of international cricket in Pakistan for months, if not years. Even before, most teams refused to tour the country because of security concerns. It will also have implications on the game’s future in South Asia, its most lucrative market.

“It is terrible incident and I am lost for words,” said Steve Davis, an Australian who was umpiring the match.

Nadeem Ghauri, a Pakistani umpire who witnessed the attack, said the umpires were behind a bus of Sri Lankan players when suddenly they heard gunshots.

“The firing started at about 8:40 and it continued for 15 minutes,” he said, adding “our driver was hit, and he was injured.”

A driver of one of the vehicles in the convoy told Pakistan’s private Express news channel that he saw a man firing a rocket toward their van and then some one hurled a grenade, but the weapons missed their vehicle.

Gunmen attack SL cricketers in Lahore
March 03, 2009 10:11 IST
Last Updated: March 03, 2009

Gunmen killed at least four people in an attack on the Sri Lankan cricket team’s bus on Tuesday as it drove to the Gadaffi stadium in Lahore, according to witnesses and cricket officials.

Sri Lankan media, quoting the sports minister, said four players received minor injuries in the attack — Kumar Sangakkara, Ajantha Mendis, Thilan Samaraweera and Tharanga Paranavithana.

Pakistan television channels said four people were killed.

A witness told Reuters he believed two police commandos were killed along with a regular policeman and a traffic warden. Shopkeeper Ahmed Ali said the two police commandos had been driving behind the team bus when they were hit.

“It was a very heavy firing and I heard at least two explosions at the time,” said a Reuters witness who had been on his way to cover the Test match between Pakistan and Sri Lanka .

Pakistan only invited the Sri Lanka team to tour after India’s team pulled out with security concerns following the militant attacks on the Indian city of Mumbai  in November.

According to PTI, the incident took place when the Sri Lankan team was attacked by around 10 armed gunmen near the Liberty Chowk which is close to the stadium.

“The firing took place from at least four sides and continued for some minutes,” one police official said.

One explosion was also heard at the stadium, PTI adds.

The attackers later escaped in separate groups.

The liaison officer of the Pakistan team said players of the host nation have been sent back to the hotel.

“The Sri Lankan players are presently safe at the Gaddafi stadium and they are getting treatment,” one PCB official told PTI.

Sources also claimed that the police had received a threat on Monday that the Sri Lankan team would be attacked so a different route was used to transport the team to the stadium.

“The firing took place from at least four sides and continued for some minutes,” one police official said.

“There were 12 masked gunmen,” Lahore police chief Habib-ur Rehman told reporters, adding that police battled against the assailants for about 25 minutes.

“They appeared to be well-trained terrorists. They came on rickshaws. They were armed with rockets, hand grenades, kalashnikovs,” he said.

Television channels aired footage of at least two of the gunmen, one of them wearing shalwar kameez and other jeans and a jacket. Both were armed with assault rifles and carrying backpacks.

Police cordoned off the area immediately after the attack and launched a search for the gunmen. The driver of the cricket team’s bus drove away from the spot immediately after the firing started.

“We are assessing the situation,” Pakistan Cricket Board chief Ejaz Butt said.

“Five policemen who were providing protection to the team sacrificed their lives,” he added.

Attack came despite change in Lankan team route
Sheela Bhatt, March 03, 2009

“It was a daring attack on Sri Lankan cricketers by around a dozen young gunmen, reminding one of the Mumbai terror attacks ,” says well known Pakistani editor Hamid Mir, speaking to rediff.com from Islamabad .

He said given the threat perception for the Sri Lankan cricket team, they had taken a different route on Tuesday and yet were attacked.

“From their hotel, Pearl Intercontinental in Lahore ,to the cricket stadium they usually go through the road along the canal. But today they took the route through Liberty market,” he said.

According to reports, the gunmen were carrying weapons in sacks and were dressed like college students.

From their appearance they looked like Ajmal Kasab, who was among 10 terrorists who attacked Mumbai on November 26, 2008.

Mir says around eight to 10 gunmen came from one side and four to five gunmen came from the other side to attack the cricketers. When the security commandos took up position to protect the cricketers they were hit by the bullets, killing four of them.

In view of the Mumbai attacks and because of the threat to security to its cricketers, India had refused to send its team to Pakistan but Sri Lanka agreed to replace them. The current attack is one more severe setback to the image of Pakistan as an unsafe place for foreigners.

Mir says, “We are not surprised. Similar attacks are being carried out every day in Swat valley. Today it has happened before the full glare of the media.” He said the timing of the attack is significant.

Interestingly, Foreign Secretary Shiv Shankar Menon had recently met his Sri Lankan counterpart, and communication channels between the two nations were just opening up.

Hamid Gul, former chief of Inter Services Intelligence, has quickly blamed the Indian external intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing for the attack.

Mir added, “It is difficult to say who attacked the Sri Lankan team,” and refused to comment on Gul’s allegation against India. He also pointed out that the Lashkar e Tayiba was not opposed to the Sri Lankans.


Multi programming: Multiprogramming is the technique of running several programs at a time using timesharing. It allows a computer to do several things at the same time. Multiprogramming creates logical parallelism. The concept of multiprogramming is that the operating system keeps several jobs in memory simultaneously. The operating system selects a job from the job pool and starts executing a job, when that job needs to wait for any i/o operations the CPU is switched to another job. So the main idea here is that the CPU is never idle.

Multi tasking: Multitasking is the logical extension of multiprogramming .The concept of multitasking is quite similar to multiprogramming but difference is that the switching between jobs occurs so frequently that the users can interact with each program while it is running. This concept is also known as time-sharing systems. A time-shared operating system uses CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of time-shared system.

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